LD20-09 Trace hydrocarbons (THCs/VOCs) with MultiDetek2 and FID

AN-LD20-09.pdf (1.96 Mo)

Measuring hydrocarbons using a flame ionization detector (FID) with the MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph instrument.
Combining our FID with our high performance adjustable amplification system, the measure of organics in low ppb up to high ppm becomes an easy task. Our high performance sub femto amp. current amplifier with its filtrering stages ensure to achieve low sensitivity by keeping the stability of the unit at the best level. Our module is built in a shielded encapsulated environment to offer the best robustness and leaving the interferences away from the signal.
The FID/amplifier modules are mounted in our MultiDetek2 rackmount analyzer which is constructed for the industrial market.
The range of application can go from ASU for monitoring hydrocarbons in bulk gases to environmental applications for measuring VOCs for indoor/outdoor ambient polluated air and industrial stacks.
The Multidetek 2 is providing all communication protocols used in the industry (Modbus, Profibus, RS-485, 4-20 mA, etc) to ensure compatibility with any acquisition system.

LD19-06 - VOCs measurement in the air

AN-LD19-06.pdf (4.40 Mo)

The analysis of indoor/outdoor air quality is becoming an important part of our day-to-day priorities due to the
increasing contaminant level caused by the industrial processes. The main contaminants to be controlled in the air
are the VOCs (volatile organic compounds).
VOCs are human-made contaminants used and produced in the processing of product manufacturing as paints,
adhesives, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, and refrigerants. This includes emissions from automotive and
industrial activity among other sources.

LD16-13 - Measurement of Greenhouse gases GHG

AN-LD16-13.pdf (1,33 Mo) Energy (fossil fuel) and agriculture required for human activities on Earth produce Greenhouse gases (GHG) such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Fluorinated gases mainly Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). These gases tend to absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth surface resulting to reduce the atmospheric heat loss into space and keeping Earth warmer.

LD16-01 - Air analysis using the MultiDetek2 and PlasmaDetek2

Application note_LD16-01 (955 Ko) The air analysis for environmental applications is more and more required in different regions of the world. In this application note, the trace analysis of acids, sulfurs and nitrous oxide has been combined in one single compact instrument using one detection technology based on plasma emission (PlasmaDetek2). The MultiDetek2 compact GC has been configured with parallel channels to achieve the measurement at low ppb level for the different impurities. The sample collection can be performed with micro pump for ambient pressure application or bags, with a proportional micro valve for positive pressure application to control flow rate or with our auto injector headspace for vials. The MultiDetek2 was built using heated zones to avoid cold points between the columns and the plasma detector. The detector, valves, fittings and tubing are made of coated stainless steel to avoid surface adsorption. This ensures good sensitivity and repeatability measuring impurities.

LD15-03 Measurement of part per billion N2O in air

Application note LD15-03 (1,7 Mo)

With the global warming concerns, it is more and more critical to measure the nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration in the ambient air. This application note will demonstrate how efficient the use of the PlasmaDetek-E is for the measurement of extremely low concentration of N2O in ambient air without interference. 

LD12-1 Greenhouse analysis with the PlasmaDetek

Application Note LD12-1 (807 Ko) The popularity to measure greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2 and N2O) has increased considerably in the last years with the global warming concerns. Chromatography is the well known technique to measure them and different detectors are used to achieve this task. This application note will explain how we can effectively do it with a simple gas chromatograph configuration involving the PlasmaDetek detector.
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Industrial Gas

Industrial Gas

LD21-01 Trace impurities measurement for synthetic diamond "grows" by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

AN-LD21-01 (2,20 Mo) How do you grow a lab diamond?
By recreating the conditions underneath the Earth that result in diamond growth: pressure, heat, & carbon.
Laboratory grown diamonds can be referred to as lab created diamonds, grown diamonds, synthetic diamonds, man-made diamonds, cultivated diamonds, or cultured diamonds. Diamonds are grown all over the world in high-tech facilities staffed by scientists, engineers, and technicians. West to East, here are locations of significant diamond production[...]

LD20-06 Measuring trace O2-N2-H2O for Lithium-Ion batteries inert atmosphere

AN-LD20-06 1,05 Mo Batteries are used to convert electrical energy into a storable chemical energy in order to subsequently release the energy back as electricity at a later point in time. There is a continual race to increase the energy packed into batteries to improve their operability, broaden their range of applications and reduce their manufacturing cost.

LD20-04 MultiDetek2 with PlasmaDetek2 configured as online analyser for fast Crude Argon analysis

AN-LD20-04 1 Mo In continuity to our application note LD12-06 that explains the benefi t of measuring the trace N2 in Crude Argon to improve the Argon production in ASU, this document will show the benefi t of using our online trace N2 in Crude Argon analyser for such type of application. In some cases, when the oxygen concentration stays below a maximum level of 5%, it is strongly suggested to refer to our LD8000MG instrument that can measure trace nitrogen in such low percent oxygen level. Our application note LD13-03 well describes what our LD8000MG series with PED technology can offer. When the Crude Argon analysis requires an oxygen level being over 5% up to 80-100%, then the use of our MultiDetek2 analyser with the PlasmaDetek2 detector mounted as an online gas analyser instrument is strongly suggested. Conventional gas analyser for such type of application will use a basic gas chromatograph which requires a certain analysis time and GC columns. In most cases, the analysis time isn’t quick enough to be able to control and improve the Argon production level. Our MD2 analyser combined with the PED in a selective and sensitive mode can performs the nitrogen analysis in a crude argon sample gas without the need of having a GC column. The MD2 uses a diaphragm injection valve with a micro sampling loop to inject through a straight copper catalyst-based bed. The combination of the highly selective/sensitive PED with the absorption bed makes the N2 analysis possible within 50 seconds. With this quick analysis time, the Argon production can be improved to reduce the cost of production.


Trace-moisture-analysis 3,30 Mo

The analyzer provides consistently accurate measurements of trace moisture. This consistency is achieved using a self-calibration system, which adjusts the sensor with reference to an internal moisture generator. The moisture generator is supplied with a calibration traceable to NPL and NIST, so long term stability of its measurements is guaranteed.

LD19-05 Measurement of impurities in UHP Argon for HIP process using the MultiDetek2 and PlasmaDetek2

AN-LD19-05 2,62 Mo

Argon is a widely used gas in different needs such as steel industries, air separation, welding, purging, chemical plants, semiconductor and others. Having a good analytical tool is mandatory to ensure the required purity of argon.

LD16-11 - Measurement of trace impurities in multiple bulk gases

Application note LD16-11 (2,97 Mo) Having an analytical system that is able to measure multiple impurities in different bulk gases is sometimes required. It is usually a big challenge to combine all the hardware in the same instrument.

LD16-10 - Measurement of trace Ar-Kr and N2 in a bulk gas Oxygen

Application note LD16-10 (1,12 Mo) Detecting and measuring trace Ar-Kr and N2 in a bulk gas Oxygen without the need of a cryogenic system, or a trapping adsorbent or an extra long column as generally used to measure trace ppb/ppm Argon as impurity from bulk Oxygen and for separating Krypton and Nitrogen.

LD16-09 - Measurement of trace impurities in UHP hydrogen

Application note LD16-09 (636 Ko) The production of UHP hydrogen requires analysis of trace impurities to control and certify the gas purity. Multiple instruments are usually dedicated to this task. Combining everything in the same instrument, the MultiDetek2 compact gas chromatograph is very efficient for this type of requirement. The detection down to part per billion can be achieved, what makes the instrument capable of certifying different hydrogen grades.

LD16-08 - Measurement of hydrocarbons in UHP Oxygen using the MultiDetek 2 and PlasmaDetek-E

Application note LD16-08 (1,68 Mo) This application note shows different methods that have been developed by LDetek for measuring the hydrocarbons in a stream of Oxygen (other matrixes can be analysed as well since the PlasmaDetek-E is strictly selective to hydrocarbons). This application note is the continuity of the application note LD16-02. It is then suggested to first read the LD16-02 to be advised about the technology that was used.

LD16-07 - Measurement of impurities in UHP Argon using the MultiDetek 2 and PlasmaDetek 2

AN-LD16-07 (709 ko) Argon is a widely used gas in different needs such as steel industries, air separation, welding, purging, chemical plants, semiconductor and others. Having a good analytical tool is mandatory to ensure the required purity of argon.

The most popular technique for UHP argon analysis is to detect trace impurities by gas chromatography. Some of the most common technologies will use a combination of multiple detectors to achieve the analysis requirements. Most commonly used are FID (flame ionization detector) combined with PDD (pulse discharge detector). This technique requires the need of helium as carrier gas what is an expensive gas to be used as carrier gas for the analysis of H2-N2-CO-CO2. The analyses of hydrocarbons will be performed using the FID what requires extra cost due to air and fuel. On top of that, the oxygen analysis must be performed using a separated trace oxygen analyzer due to the co elution of argon and oxygen in the gas chromatography system with helium ionization detection technique.

LD16-06 - LD8000 MultiGas online gas analysis solution for high purity compressed Helium used in cryogenic installations.

AN-LD16-06 (398 ko) Cryogenics is the branch of physics that deals with the production and effects of very low temperatures. Helium was a natural choice of coolant as its properties allow components to be kept cool over long distances. Super fluid helium has remarkable properties, including very high thermal conductivity; it is an efficient heat conductor. These qualities make helium an excellent refrigerant for cooling and stabilising the LHC's large-scale superconducting systems. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at institutions like the CERN in Switzerland is the largest cryogenic system in the world and one of the coldest places on Earth. It is one of the examples where the use of cryogenic Helium is essential for good working of the system.

LD16-02 - Analysis of hydrocarbons, CO2, N2O in Oxygen with the MultiDetek2 compact GC system using Nitrogen as carrier gas and the PlasmaDetek-E detection technology

Application note_LD16-02 (665 Ko) The hydrocarbon analysis for the production of high purity Oxygen on air separation plants is essential for safety of the operations and quality of the product. For a very long time, the flame ionisation detector has been used for detection of trace hydrocarbons in different gas mixtures. This detector has now many different designs all based on carbon ions collection. The FIDs require a mixture of Air and Hydrogen to generate the flame used for ionisation. It is also necessary to have extra safety based on Hydrogen gas handling. All these points result in increase of operating and start-up costs as demonstrated in Figure 1.

LD15-08 - Measurement of impurities in UHP helium using MultiDetek2 and PlasmaDetek2

Application Note LD15-08 (0,8 Mo)

Helium is a widely used gas in different needs such as cryogenics, pressurizing and purging, welding, controlled atmospheres, leak detection and breathing mixtures. Having a good analytical tool is mandatory to ensure the required purity of helium.

The most popular technique for UHP helium analysis is to detect impurities by gas chromatography. But some detection technologies within the GC do not provide the desired detection limit or can simply not measure some critical impurities like neon.

LD14-01 - Light hydrocarbons measurement with the *PlasmaDetek-E system with nitrogen carrier gas and the MultiDetek-2.

Application Note LD14-01 847 Ko

Hydrocarbons are ones of the most important impurities measured in the industry. Whether it is for safety, quality control, special gases or any other needs, those compounds are everywhere.

The techniques used to measure those compounds have been the same for quite some years. The FID (Flame Ionization Detector) is surely the most widely used in the industry. The selectivity for hydrocarbon (HC) gives the simplicity desired for all gas chromatograph (GC) users. However the need of air, but mostly hydrogen as fuel is the drawback of this technology. Many plants and laboratories would like to get rid of the hydrogen as potential explosive gas. All the safety feature (valves, extra lines, procedures, etc) are required an brings extra cost and manpower.

LD13-02 - Measurement of nitrogen in a mixture of Argon-Oxygen

Application Note LD13-02.pdf (2,7 Mo)

The measurement online of nitrogen in UHP argon is widely used and the LD8000 is now a reference in such measurement. However when measuring crude argon with a few % of oxygen, the conventional online instruments are not suitable anymore.

LD13-01 - Analysis of UHP Hydrogen production using Plasmadetek-2 & micro GC Multidetek-2

Application Note LD13-01.pdf (1.1 Mo)

The high purity hydrogen production demand is rising quickly and the need of measuring low ppb trace in a quick analysis run is then required. Most of the GC technologies available on the market use the same methods for years which required quite complex systems. Those systems require the use of different detectors to cover the application and a complex chromatograph configuration what make the price of such system increasing. The complexity of the chromatograph operations, the long analysis time and the limitations to achieve low ppb measurement are often faced.

LD8000 Trace Nitrogen in Argon or Helium analyzer - DESIGN REPORT

Design Report (2,6 Mo)

The need of trace nitrogen in argon or helium analysis in the industry is not something new. Many instruments have been and still are on the market to achieve such measurement for different type of applications. The most popular use is without any doubt in air separation industry for the production of argon.

The demand and the production of gas more and more pure require good analytical instrumentations. It is even more the case for the measurement of nitrogen. Small leakage, dead volume, change in temperature, bad accuracy, etc can all cause big headaches.

In this document, information about the design of the LDetek LD8000 trace nitrogen in argon or helium analyzer will be described to explain how we achieve such good performance. Those results are also described to show that the LD8000 is now the solution for any applications that require such measurement.           

LD12-9 Hydrocarbons measurement for Oxygen production using PlasmaDetek & Multidetek-2

Application Note LD12-9 (2,8 Mo)

Oxygen is one of the basic chemical elements. In its most common form, oxygen is a colorless gas found in air. It is one of the life-sustaining elements on Earth and is needed by all animals. Oxygen is also used in many industrial, commercial, medical, and scientific applications. It is used in blast furnaces to make steel, and is an important component in the production of many synthetic chemicals, including ammonia, alcohols, and various plastics. Oxygen and acetylene are combusted together to provide the very high temperatures needed for welding and metal cutting.

The most common commercial method for producing oxygen is the separation of air using either a cryogenic distillation process or a vacuum swing adsorption process. Nitrogen and argon are also produced by separating them from air. The figure 1 represents a common cryogenic distillation process for producing oxygen.           

LD12-7 Analysis of Neon-Hydrogen-Argon-Krypton-Nitrogen with the PlasmaDetek & the HSR-Etek column

Application Note LD12-7 (819 Ko) The analysis of Neon, Hydrogen, Argon, Krypton and Nitrogen by chromatography has always been problematic. The bad separation and the poor sensitivity for the analysis of these impurities are the reasons that make it complicated to realize. Even with the use of capillary columns, cryogenic system and/or hydrogen trapping system, the analysis of low ppb of these impurities cannot be performed in one run. Furthermore, the detectors available in the industry have some sensitivity limitation. It is then very difficult to measure low ppb for the mentioned impurities especially for Neon with the existing technologies.

LD12-6 Increasing argon production with the MultiDetek

Application Note LD12-6 (438 Ko)

Air is composed of nitrogen (78.09%), oxygen (20.94%) and argon (0.934%). To produce pure argon, distillation process separates the air constituent by the use of distillation columns. Such installation on an air separation plant is used for many years.

This separation process is based on vapor pressure of each component. Argon is taken from a low pressure column and introduced in a second column called crude argon. Since argon vapor pressure is close to oxygen, and also between nitrogen and oxygen, its extraction is between those two other components in the low pressure column before being introduced in the second column.           

LD12-4 Analysis of nitrogen in hydrogen and oxygen bulk with the PlasmaDetek

Application Note LD12-4 (1,4 Mo)

Measuring nitrogen as impurity in low concentration is not an easy task. It is mostly the case in hydrogen and oxygen background. Even if the chromatography system is quite efficient, the remaining bulk gas could influence the reading of nitrogen.

The PlasmaDetek, configured to be selective on nitrogen, brings very good result for this measurement. This document will demonstrate how this technology can help to make better analysis on nitrogen with any gas chromatograph system.           

LD12-3 Analysis of argon in pure oxygen with the PlasmaDetek and ArgoTek

Application Note LD12-3 (565 Ko)

The complexity of measuring argon as impurity in chromatography comes from the fact that typical columns on the market do not separate argon and oxygen. Both elute at the same time making the analysis difficult in low concentration. There are typical techniques for this measurement:

  • Using an oxygen trap which involves regeneration procedure with H2 supply, maintenance, consumable and complex chromatography system.
  • Cryogenic configuration where columns need to be used in cold environment which involves complex manipulation.
  • Using an online oxygen analyzer in parallel and substract the oxygen from the measurement of Ar+O2. But this requires a second analyzer and it is difficult to get an accurate measurement in low concentration.

But the combination of the PlasmaDetek and the ArgoTek column is the ideal solution to measure argon in ppt to %.

LD12-2 Analysis of permanent gases and light hydrocarbons with the PlasmaDetek

Application Note LD12-2 (328 Ko) The PlamaDetek is ideal to measure permanent gases and light hydrocarbons in different matrices. Only one detector system is needed to accomplish this task. Such measurement is required in many different applications field: industrial, petrochemical, energy, environmental, etc. The sensitivity, the stability, the ease of start-up and installation make this system very attractive for any users.
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LD17-01 - Trace Hydrocarbons and Permanent gases in Propylene

AN-LD17-01.pdf (0,92 Mo)

The high purity Propylene is used for the production of Polypropylene in Petrochemical industry. The analysis of trace impurities is critical to ensure a good quality of the final product. The analysis of hydrocarbons and permanent gases are required at a level below 10ppm to ensure the good operation of the production process.

LD16-05 - Refinery gas analyses with MultiDetek2 compact gas chromatograph and PlasmaDetek2 gas detector

AN_LD16-05 (916 ko) The analysis of trace permanent gases has many different fields of application in the petrochemical industry. One of the most important is for controlling the manufacturing process and the product quality. For example, some contaminants as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide tend to deteriorate the catalysts in the propylene and ethylene polymer grade production.

LD13-03 - Measurement of H2S and COS in Syngas with MultiDetek 2

Application Note LD13-03.pdf (1,5 Mo)

Singas (Synthesis gas) a fuel gas mixture, primarily composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide,
is mainly used as intermediate in creating synthetic natural gas (SNG) or ammonia or methanol.

To be able to use a clean and environmental friendly fuel and feedstock, the sulfurs compounds must be removed.
Right analysis tool is needed to ensure that the concentration of sulfurs is kept at the minimum desired level.

LD12-8 Analysis of Sulfurs with the PlasmaDetek

Application Note LD12-8 (1,1 Mo) The analysis of sulfurs can now be performed using the PlasmaDetek technology. With its sulfurs selective mode, the analysis of low ppb sulfurs can be easily quantified.
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LD15-01 - Measurement of hydrocarbons, including the organic hormone (Ethylene) in CO2 production with MultiDetek-2 and PlasmaDetek-E

Application note LD15-01 (1,6 Mo)

A Greenhouse CO2 environment is commonly used for the production of organics like fruits, plants and flowers. In this case, the production and control of the CO2 gas purity are critical to ensure the proper growth of the organics. 

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Electronic gases & semiconductor

Electronic gases & Semiconductor

LD21-02 Analysis of trace impurities in UHP F2-Cl2 and WF6 used for semiconductor industry with the PlasmaDetek2 and MultiDetek2 GC

AN-LD21-02 2 Mo

Measuring trace impurities down to sub ppb is required by the semiconductor industry to qualify the purity of its critical UHP bulk gases Chlorine (Cl2), Tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and Fluorine (F2). These high purity gases are also employed in numerous industrial applications also requiring qualification of it prior to use.

The MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph is configured here with 2 trains. Both channels are each coupled with a PlasmaDetek2 (PED) sensor configured with the proper optical configuration to selectively measure the selected impurities. One train is used for the analysis of H2-O2-N2-CH4-CO while the second train is used for the analysis of CO2 and SF6. 

LD20-07 Measurement of ppt for semiconductor H2-CO2-NMHC-N2-CO-CH4 in UHP gases

AN-LD20-07 2,24 Mo Using the enhanced PlasmaDetek2 (PED) and the MultiDetek2 (GC), in combination with its LDGDSA automatic dilution system for proper calibration and the the LDGSS sample stream selector system with fast purge loops, it offers the best solution to measure down to <100ppt.

LD20-03 MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph with PlasmaDetek2 detector uses for the analysis of semiconductor specialty gases as UHP Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8)

AN-LD20-03 1 Mo Measuring the production quality of complex electronic specialty gases as C4F8 uses as etchant can be realized with our gas chromatograph MultiDetek2. Our system uses PlasmaDetek2 (PED) as detection device to ensure good selectivity and sensitivity down to sub ppb level. Multiple purged diaphragm valves ensure the leak integrity to keep the purity of the system in place for ppb detection. The column selection is adapted to CF gases to keep the reactivity and adsorption as low as possible to ensure the stability of the results. The complete flow path of the unit is coated with inert material to climinate the reactivity for such complex electronic gas mixtures.

LD19-03 Measurement of trace impurities in high purity nitrous oxide (N2O) for electronic gas industry using PlasmaDetek2 and MultiDetek2 GC

AN-LD19-03 5,3 Mo

Nitrous oxide (N2O), often referred to as laughing gas, is used in the high-tech thin film industries of semiconductor and LCD display manufacturing. The primary application is the reaction with silane (SiH4) or other silicon precursors to produce high-quality oxide films (SiOx), which are used as electrical insulators in microelectronic transistors. N2O is increasingly used to make thin-film oxides with other elements like titanium, aluminium, magnesium and zirconium. It is also used in the selective etching of semiconductor thin-films.

LD19-02 Measurement of trace impurities in high purity Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) for electronic gas industry using PlasmaDetek2 and MultiDetek2 GC

AN-LD19-02 4,21 Mo

The analysis of high purity nitrogen trifluoride is commonly used for the electronic market in the plasma etching of silicon wafers for the production of liquid crystal displays.

LD18-01 - Measurement of trace impurities in Germane (GeH4) for electronic gas industry using PlasmaDetek2 and MultiDetek2

AN_LD18-01.pdf (680 Ko)

The PlasmaDetek2 and the MultiDetek2 combined with the highly safe continuous monitoring sampling system allows the measurement of GeH4 purity with reduced risk. The N2 monitoring of the purged box is essential to ensure there is no ignition risk inside the MultiDetek2.
The trace impurities measurement can be realized with a relatively short analysis time and can offer very low limit of detection of the measured impurities what is required for GeH4 purity analysis.

LD15-04 - Measurement of silane purity in electronic gases industry

Application Note LD15-04 (1,8 Mo) Silane (SiH4), more properly known as monosilane and alternately called silicon tetrahydride or silicane, is a highly flammable and hazardous chemical compound containing silicon (87.45%) and hydrogen (12.55%). With silicon comprising 87.45% of its content by weight, pure silane is a primary source of high-purity silicon for use in industry. It is a critical gas in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, display panels and other electronic devices. The analysis of ultra low part per billion of permanent gases in silane is required for measuring the silane purity. The use of the LDetek compact & industrial MultiDetek2 GC combined with the PlasmaDetek-E is the perfect fit for this domain of application.

LD15-02 - Measurement of part per billion Ar and N2 in oxygen for semiconductor industry

Application note LD15-02 (1,5 Mo)

The oxygen pipeline purity that goes to the semiconductor industry must be properly measured to ensure that there is no contaminant in it. It is critical and challenging to measure the ppb content of argon and nitrogen impurities in oxygen. The conventional technique used for such application is with a heated Oxy-Trap system combined with HID or conventional PED. Such technique requires a complex chromatography system with periodic Oxy-Trap regeneration with hydrogen. The operations of such system require a lot of maintenance and specialist interventions on a routine basis.

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Natural Gas

Natural Gas

LD19-04 Measurement of sulfurs & mercaptans combined with THT-TBM in natural gas using the MultiDetek2 and PlasmaDetek2

AN-LD19-04 3,32 Mo

Natural gas is colourless and odourless in its most pure form. When extracted, it can contain sulphur compounds such as sulfurs and Mercaptans that when in the presence of moisture can produce sulphuric acid that can degrade the pipeline.

LD19-01 Measurement of THT-TBM odorants in natural gas using the MultiDetek 2 and PlasmaDetek 2

AN-LD19-01 1,85 Mo

The quick analysis of trace tetrahydrothiophene (THT) in LNG is required for controlling the amount of this odorant added in the natural gas. The THT is used for his smell to detect any presence of gas leakage in natural gas distribution network. The THT is generally used in mixture containing tert-Butylthiol (TBM) which is an organosulfur compound. In presence of TBM in natural gas, it is required to measure its concentration at low ppb/ppm because of its strong odor that causes nausea. The permissive expose limit (PEL) is in the range of 500ppb and it is the reason why highly sensitive detection system is required for both measuring THT and TBM in natural gas. This application note is the continuity of the previous app. Note LD15-09.

LD15-09 - Measurement of THT in natural gas using MultiDetek2 and PlasmaDetek2

Application note_LD15-09 (1,38 mo)

A quick analysis to trace tetrahydrothiophene (THT) in natural gas is required for controlling the amount of this odorant added in the natural gas. Due to its odor, the THT is used to detect any presence of gas leakage in natural gas distribution networks. The THT is composed of a five-membered ring containing four carbon atoms and a sulfur atom. It is also known as thiophane or thiolane. The THT is generally used in mixtures containing tert-Butylthiol (TBM) which is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)3CSH. In the presence of TBM in natural gas, it is required to measure its concentration at low ppb/ppm because of its strong odor that causes nausea. The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is in the range of 500ppb and it is the reason why a highly sensitive detection system is required for measuring both THT and TBM in natural gas.

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LD20-08 Measurement of trace impurities in UHP hydrogen for fuel cells with the HyDetek system solution

AN-LD20-08 (3,4 Mo)

Hydrogen fuel cells offer reliability and a smaller carbon footprint compared to diesel and battery systems.
An hydrogen fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often
oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions.
Fuel cells come in many varieties; however, they all work in the same general manner. They are made up of three adjacent segments:
the anode the electrolyte, and the cathode. Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments. The net
result of the two reactions is that fuel is consumed, water is created, and an electric current is created, which can be used to power
electrical devices, normally referred to as the load.
To keep the durability and the performances of the fuel cells, the hydrogen used must conform to the ISO 14687 Part 2 to know and
measure the acceptable limits of contaminants as listed in the table.

LD16-04 - Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) purity analysis using the MultiDetek 2 and PlasmaDetek 2

AN-LD16-04 (496 ko) SF6 is used in the electrical industry as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage circuit breakers, switchgear and other electrical equipment. Due to its high electrical insulation properties, it is often used for replacing oil filled circuit breakers. The sulfur hexafluoride is an expensive gas and it also has been identified as the most potent greenhouse gas. A SF6 purity monitoring instrument is then required in the electrical industry to prevent failures, extend equipment life, reduces equipment cost and increase safety.
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Food and Beverage

Food and Beverage

LD17-04 - Trace impurities in Carbon Dioxide for beverage and food packaging industry

application_note_LD17-04 (2,2 Mo)

With regards to the beverage industry, the dissolved Carbon Dioxide which is used as carbonic acid gives a pleasantly acidic avour and a nice mouth-feel when drinking. When it is not present, the drinks taste at. Being used in many different elds of food and beverage, the CO2 quality management is essential to meet the market requirements. 

LD17-02 - Gas analysis for wineries

application_note_LD17-02 (1142 Ko) In the wineries for proper wine production, inert gases like nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon are used for sparging, blanketing as counter-pressure to move wine(usually from barrels), as well as to flush transfer lines and tanks prior to moving wine or juice. Sparging involves the introduction of a stream of very fine gas bubbles to help add or remove dissolved Oxygen or CO2. Blanketing partially-filled tanks attempts to maintain an inert gas layer above the wine/juice surface in the hope of minimizing wine/air contact. The main reason for the use of inert gassing is to prevent the growth of aerobic microorganisms in the wine. The gas chromatography is a well known analysis technique to ensure the measurement of the purity and to control the production of wine to achieve the best quality.

LD16-12 - trace impurities in Carbon Dioxide for beverage and food packaging industry

Application note LD16-12 (2,10 Mo)

With regards to the beverage industry, the dissolved Carbon Dioxide which is used as carbonic acid gives a pleasantly acidic fl avour and a nice mouth-feel when drinking. When it is not present, the drinks taste fl at. Being used in many different fi elds of food and beverage, the CO2 quality management is essential to meet the market requirements.


The CO2 is produced from different techniques such as fermentation, combustion, ammonia/hydrogen production and others. It is required by the industry, especially for bottlers to control the supply chain by monitoring the CO2 purity allowing maintenance of the product quality.

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Pharmaceutical and Medecine

Pharmaceutical and Medecine

LD20-01 MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph uses for medical & pharmaceutical applications

AN-LD20-01 1.71 Mo Our medical gas analysers control safety and quality of production, according to the European Pharmacopeia norms. LDetek provides different GC configurations using the MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph where different detectors as our TCD and/or our FID can be mounted in.
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Electronic Special Gases

LD20-05 MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph with PlasmaDetek2 & TCD detectors uses for the analysis of purity Xenon-Krypton-Neon

AN-LD20-05 2,67 Mo The noble gases also called inert gases or rare gases have several characteristics that make them important and unique as: low reactivity, low thermal conductivity and high stability, among others. Being at very low concentration in the earth’s atmosphere, it makes these gases very expensive to produce. The six naturally noble gases are Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and the radioactive Radon (Rn). The rarest gases of these are Xenon, Krypton and Neon making them very expensive to use for industrial applications.

LD20-02 MultiDetek2 gas chromatograph with PlasmaDetek2 detector uses for hydrogen isotopes separation and the analysis of impurities in Deuterium

AN-LD20-02 1,4 Mo The complex analysis of the impurities in a sample gas containing high purity deuterium (D2) can be realized with our gas chromatograph model MultiDetek2. The detector uses for the trace impurities is the PlasmaDetek2, which is configured with its selective optics to obtain the best selectivity and sensitivity to the required impurities to measured. The requirements here was a range of 10ppm and 100ppm capable of detecting down to 10ppb limit of detection for each impurity. The GC has been coupled with our cryo system to realize the separation of the hydrogen isotopes without interference in a relative short analysis time.
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Our other fields of applications

Hydrocarbons processing

Hydrocarbons processing

Health and Safety

Health and Safety